Ureteroscopy (Treatment of ureteal stones)
Ureteroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure to visualize the ureters through the aid of a special telescope. Ureteral stones can be removed through ureteroscopy. Symptoms of ureteral stones include blood in the urine, pain in abdomen, flank, groin and urinary retention. The stones are aggregates of particles found in urine that stick together to form stones that can obstruct the ureters and cause pain. They are typically composed of calcium oxalate or other calcium salts and uric acid and are caused by poor water intake and dietary factors. Unusual stones may be cystine, indicating a genetic problem, or struvite, which may indicate a prior or ongoing infection with certain types of bacteria in the urine. One in 20 people are affected by ureteral stones at some time in their life. They tend to be hereditary.